Comprehensive list of Medicinal Plants of India

Courtesy:National Medicinal Plants Board

S.No. Botanical Name
1 Abelmoschus crinitus WALL.
2 Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) MOENCH
3 Abelmoschus ficulneus (L.) WIGHT & ARN.
4 Abelmoschus manihot (L.) MEDIK.
5 Abelmoschus moschatus MEDIK.
6 Abies densa W. Griff. ex.Parker
7 Abies pindrow ROYLE
8 Abies spectabilis (D.DON) SPACH Read the rest of this entry »
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Posted by on May 23, 2011 in Plants


Sowa Rigpa

“Sowa-Rigpa” commonly known as Amchi system of medicine is one of the oldest, Living and well documented medical tradition of the world. It has been popularly practice in Tibet, Magnolia, Bhutan, some parts of China, Nepal, Himalayan regions of India and few parts of former Soviet Union etc..


There are various schools of thought about the origin of this medical tradition, some scholars believes that it is originated from India, some says China and others consider it to be originated from Tibetitself. The majority of theory and practice of Sowa-Rigpa is similar to “Ayurveda” . The first Ayurvedic influence came to Tibet during 3rd century AD but it became popular only after 7th centuries with the approach of Buddhism to Tibet. There after this trend of exportation of Indian medical literature, along with Buddhism and other Indian art and sciences were continued till early 19th century. India being the birth place of Buddha and Buddhism has always been favorite place for learning Buddhist art and culture for Tibetan students; lots of Indian scholars were also invited to Tibet for prorogation of Buddhism and other Indian art and sciences. This long association with India had resulted in translation and preservation of thousands of Indian literature on various subjects like religion, sciences, arts, culture and language etc. in Tibetan language. Out of these around twenty-five text related to medicine are also preserved in both canonical and non-canonical forms of Tibetan literatures. Many of these knowledge were further enriched in Tibet with the knowledge and skills of neighboring countries and their own ethnic knowledge. “Sowa-Rigpa” (Science of healing) is one of the classic examples of it.Gyud-Zi (four tantra) the fundamental text book of this medicine was first translated from India and enriched in Tibet with its own folklore and other medical tradition like Chinese and Persian etc. The impact of Sowa-Rigpa along with Buddhism and other Tibetan art and sciences were spread in neighboring Himalayan regions. In India this system has been practiced in SikkimArunachal Pradesh,Darjeeling (West Bengal), Lahaul & Spiti (Himachal Pradesh) and Ladakh region of Jammu & Kashmir etc. In 2010 Sowa-Rigpa got its legal recognition among Indian Systems of Medicine under the Department of AYUSH[1][2].


Sowa-Rigpa is based on the principles of Jung-wa-nga (Skt: panca mahabhutas) and Ngepa-Sum (Skt: Tridosa). Bodies of all the living beings and non living objects of the universe are composed of Jung-wa-nga; viz Sa, Chu, Me, Lung and Nam-kha (Skt: Prithvi, Jal, Agni, Vayu and Akash). The physiology, pathology Pharmacology and metria -medica of this system are established on these theories. Our body is composed of these five Cosmo physical elements of Jung-wa-nga; when the proportion of these elements is in imbalance in our body disorder results. The medicine and diet used for the treatment of disorders are also composed of the same five basic elements. In the body these elements are present in the form of Ngepa-Sum (Skt: Tri-dosa) Lus-sung-dun (Skt: Sapta Dhatu) and Dri-ma-Sum (Skt: Trimala). In drugs, diet and drinks they exist in the form of Ro-dug (Skt: Shast-rasa) Nus-pa (Virya) Yontan (Skt: Guna) and Zhu-jes (Skt: Vipaka). It is in context of this theory that a physician would use his knowledge, skills and experience in treating a patient, using the theory of similarity and dissimilarity (Skt: Samanaya and Vísesa) of five elements.

The basic theory of Sowa-Rigpa may be adumbrated in terms of the following five points:

  • The body in disease as the locus of treatment;
  • Antidote, i.e., the treatment;
  • The method of treatment through antidote;
  • Medicine that cures the disease;
  • Materia Medica, Pharmacy & Pharmacology

Specialities in Sowa-Rigpa

Sowa-Rigpa prescribes to study eight major branches or specialized areas and all the disease and treatment procedures are classified into these eight branches –

  • Lus (Kaya chikitsa/ Treatment of Internal disease)
  • Byis Pa (Bala-tantra/ Pediatrics)
  • Mo Nad (Matra roga/ Gynecology)
  • Gdon (Bhoot vidya/ Psychiatry)
  • Mtson (Shalya tantra/ Surgery)
  • Dug (Agada tantra/ Toxicology)
  • rGas pa (Jara chikitsa/ Geriatrics)
  • Ro tsa (Vajikarna/ Aphrodisiacs)

Training and Education

Traditionally the Amchis are trained under the traditional educational system either under private guru-shisya tradition or under gyud-pa (lineage) system in families in which the knowledge is passed down from father to son through generations. It takes several years to become a skillful Amchi, which requires hard theoretical and practical trainings. After finishing his/her training the trainee Amchi has to give an examination in front of the entire community in the presence of a few expert Amchis in a ceremony to confer the designation of Amchi on him/her. For higher training, those from theIndian Himalayan region as well used to go to study with reputed scholars or to any of the medical colleges in Tibet in the past. Some from these regions preferred to go to Tibet to begin their education of Sowa-Rigpa.

Given the modern social and educational system, some institutions are imparting the education at par with the modern system in terms of time with packages to be completed within a limited duration. Presently, after 10+2 grate the students are selected on entrance test merit basis. The nomenclature of this six years course is Bachelor in Tibetan Medical System (BTMS) or Amchi Chikitsa Acharya. This course is presently conducted in following four Institutions in India:

  1. Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Leh (under Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India)
  2. Tibetan Medical and Astrological Institute, Dharamsala HP of his Holiness Dalai Lama
  3. Central University for Tibetan Studies, Saranath UP (under Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India)
  4. Chockpori Medical Institute Darjeeling (W.B).

Sowa-Rigpa in India

In most of Himalayan regions Sowa-Rigpa is practiced in traditional way with community support with an Amchi in every village. But since the last two decades this scenario has been changing, adopting some of the administrative elements of modern hospital system in educational Institutions, dispensaries, hospitals and pharmacies etc. Nevertheless, still there are all together around 1000 practitioners of Sowa-Rigpa in India catering health care in harsh Himalayan regions and other places. Dharamshala in Himanchal Pardesh and Ladakh region of J&K are the main Centers for Sowa-Rigpa Institutions in India.

After taking refuge in India His Holiness the Dalai Lama has been in Dharamsala (Himachal Pardesh) where he has set up the Tibetan Medical and Astro. Institute to train the youngsters and provide quality health service through Sowa-Rigpa. This Institute has a Medical college, Pharmacy, Astrology section and a chain of 40-50 clinics all over India. There is Central Council for Tibetan Medicine in Dharamsala to regulate the practice of Sowa-Rigpa in India, it looks after the registration of practitioners, standard of colleges and other mechanism to regulate Sowa-Rigpa.


Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir has the wide and significant presences of Sowa-Rigpa in India. There are Sowa-Rigpa Centers from both Govt. and Non Govt. Institutions, but all these Institutes are small. For education there is an Amchi section in Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Leh (under Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India) to conduct six year Amchi course. For public heath the local administration has an OPD in district Hospital and 80 Amchis are provided with meager financial to serve public health in remote areas. National Research Institute for Sowa-Rigpa (under CCRAS, Ministry of Health & FW, Govt. of India), Leh has been doing R&D work on various aspects of Sowa-Rigpa. Beside these, NGO’s like Ladakh Amchi Sabha, Ladakh Society for Traditional Medicine and Mentsee Khang Cultural Centre, Leh etc. are working for Sowa-Rigpa in Ladakh.

Himachal Pardesh

In Himachal Pardesh there is sizable number of Amchis in the region of Lahoul-Spiti, Kinnor and Manali practicing without any support from Govt. agencies. There is a small private institute in Manali, which trains few students in Sowa-Rigpa. There is also a clinic of Men-tsee-Khang, Dharamsala. The Himachal Pardesh Govt. has also appointed Amchis for public health in Kinnor and Lahoul-Spiti regions.

Arunachal Pradesh

The entire region of Mon in Arunachal Pradesh maintains the Sowa-Rigpa as an important part of their culture and prefers the treatment of Sowa-Rigpa to modern medicine. There was constant influx of Amchis from Tibet in the past. However these days besides some local Amchis and a branch of Men-tsee-Khang, Dharamsala, which was established to serve the local people in Tawang area, there is no establishment that can fulfill the minimum requirement of the people. The handful of Amchis have of the take round in the various remote villages which has become a severe problem for the Amchis to visit them on regular basis, particularly, when the they are desperately needed, due to shortage of Amchis and lack of transportation facilities.

Sikkim, Darjeeling and Kalimplong

Sikkim, Darjeeling and Kalimplong also used to receive medical treatment from the visiting Amchis from Tibet in the past, as these places were on the trade routes between Tibet and Indian cities like Calcutta. Students from these places used to go to Tibet to study Sowa-Rigpa. There are some Amchis and from the local community and a branch of Men-tsee-Khang which are at great demand not only from the local people but also from the community who have come from other states of India. Despite demand from the remote areas of this region they can hardly visit them due to scarcity of Amchis. In Darjeeling late Rev. Thogwa-Rinpoche has set up a Sowa-Rigpa medical Institute for Education and public health following the tradition of Chogpori in Tibet.

Other regions of India

The Central University for Tibetan Studies, Saranath, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh, which is under the Department of Culture, Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India has a faculty of Sowa-Rigpa. It provides a four years course of PUC and another five years and six months course of Bachelor degree (BTMS). The faculty runs a pharmacy and OPD clinic for the training of the students.

There are branches of Tibetan Medical Institute in all the Tibetan Settlements in various parts of India, which attract lots of Indians as well. Most of the branch -clinics of Tibetan medical Institute, Dharamsala, in the cities like Delhi, Bombay and Kolkota, were opened on the request and initiatives taken by Indian people who were benefited earlier by Tibetan medicines.

Table showing the status of Sowa-Rigpa in India

Name of the State Prevailing regions No. of Practitioners (Tentative) Institutions/ Sections, NGOs on Sowa-Rigpa
Jammu & Kashmir Leh & Kargil of Ladakh region and Paddar and Pangay area 350 a) National Research Institute for Sowa Rigpa, Leh, CCRAS, Govt. of Indiab) Amchi Dept. Central Institute of Buddhist Studies, Leh under Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India c) An Amchi Clinic in District Hospital Leh, 40 Amchis in Leh and 40 Amchis in Kargil are supported by state Govt. for rural health. d) Tibetan Medical Cultural Centre and two Clinics, Leh e) Some Amchis are supported for public health in Padar-Pangey region under Dept. of ISM, J&K Nine Amchi NGOs are working in J&K
Himachal Pardesh Kinnor, Lahoul, Spiti and Daramshala 160 a) Four Amchi Doctor posts are created by H.P. Govt. to cater health service in Sowa-Rigpa prevailing regions.b) An Amchi school is run in Manali by local Amchis. c) Amchi NGOs are functional in Lahoul & Spiti regions
Sikkim Entire Sikkim State 30 a) An Amchi OPD Clinic facility is available in Govt. Hospital Gangtok by Sikkim Govt.b) Few private formal clinics are functioning in Sikkim town and other districts
Arunachal Pardesh Mon, Tawang and Bomdila regions 55 Two formal Amchi Clinics in Tawang.
West Bengal Darjeeling and Kalimpong 15 a) Chogpuri Medical Centre of late Rev. Thogawa Rinpochee is providing training facility and medical service.b) Formal Clinics of Amchi medicine are available in both of these areas.
Tibetan community in India All over India and abroad 260 Tibetan Medical and Astro. Institute, Dharamsala with the following facilities by H.H. Dalai Lama:a) Tibetan Medical and Astro College. b) A pharmacy and production unit. c) Research and publication wing. There are 40-50 Clinics under this Institute all over India. There is a Central Council of Tibetan Medicine at Dharamsala.
Varanasi, U.P Saranath 35 Sowa-Rigpa Deptt. In CIHTS, Sarnath with pharmacy and OPD facilities.


External links

This is a copied version from wikipedia page “Sowa rigpa” created by me.
“Amchi” image courtesy janevance”
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Posted by on January 1, 2011 in Uncategorized



Swine flu Vs Vitamin C

The cure for swine flu

(article from:

The current ”pandemic” of swineflu is hugely exaggerated by the global media. Actually I have been scanning what else is going on right now that needs to be covered up with a ”Deadly-Pandemic”-scare. I’ll put it as simply as I can trying to keep it short. (I still recommend you make yourself a cuppa tea and sit down comfortably)

  • N1H1 is the most common influenza
  • ”Swine-flu” is a recent mutation but still just a flu.
  • Virusses mutate all the time, all the time, nothing new.
  • You don’t die of swine flu but of complications, and only if you are weak or your health is compromised to start with
  • Influenza is to be taken serious, but swineflu is not more deadly than other flu’s
  • Tamiflu does not cure flu, it slightly alleviates symptoms and may shorten the disease by one day, but only if taken within 24 hours of being infected
  • Tamiflu can have very severe side-effects
  • Fluvirusses are allready becoming resistant to Tamiflu
  • replication of all virusses can be decreased or even completely blocked by ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
  • the pharmaceutical companies are lobbying very hard to keep this information from the public knowlege. Vitamins cannot be patented, and therefore cannot be used as a cashcrop.
  • Viral deseases are virtually unknown in the animal world, because most animals, except humans, produce high levels of vitamin C in their own bodies
  • Al virusses spread in the body by using the same enzymes (collagenases) which can be partially or completely blocked by means of the natural amino acid lysine. (also not produced by the human body)
  • The WHO, (World Health Organisation) does not prioritise human health, it doesn’t promote your health, it promotes the interests of the pharmaceutical investment interests

As virusses can be either slowed down consederably, or even blocked alltogether by ingesting large amounts of vitamin C, and other micronutrients, I wonder why I should bother with artificial expensive medicines, which do not stop the virus from spreading but merely alleviate some symptoms. And, according to many patients who have taken Tamiflu, the side-effects from Tamiflu have been far worse than the flu they suffered from before taking the Tamiflu.

Read how a virus uses the cells of the body to spread.
In this open letter dr Rath explains about natural (and cheap) protection from SARS. Hours later the WHO changed their own policy 180” and declared Sars under control.

All virusses use the same method to infiltrate the body. All Steps of Influenza Infection Can Be Blocked by Micronutrients:

1.Influenza virus gets inside the body cells with the help of the enzyme neuraminidase (N), which is located on the surface of the virus.

2.Within the infected cell,the virus reprogrammes the genetic software in the cell core to allow its own multiplication. The infected cell now continuously produces more viruses as well as the biological scissors (collagenases) for their spread.

3.Millions of viruses are released from infected cells.With the help of collagen-destroying enzymes, the viruses expand through the connective tissue and invade other cells. The influenza infection has turned into a disease.

So if Vitamin C, and other micro nutrients can stop this from happening, you are actually stopping the disease on it’s onset. You don’t get ill!
That seems to me a lot more effective than a slight alleviation of symptoms, with, as may people report spme very, very serious side effects which may even last long term.
Patients who take Tamiflu as a precaution only, so without having been infected, experience the same severe side-effects. In their cases the symptoms cannot be blamed on swine flu, as the manufacturer is trying to make out. One patient, who had taken Tamiflu only as a precaution, so without being sick, not only suffered from side effects, but the doctors have told him he might now be suffering from auto immune disease!

A list of the side effects as reported by patients who have taken Tamiflu, some of these side effects started within hours or even minutes of taking their first dose. Some report these side effects lasting for many weeks after stopping taking the Tamiflu and still continuing. Most patients experience several of these side effects simultaniously.

  • nausea
  • delusions
  • nightmares
  • extreme stomach cramps
  • depression
  • suicidal thoughts
  • extreme fatigue
  • chills
  • swollen and painful joints
  • difficulties to breath
  • pressure on chest
  • feeling of doom
  • moodswings
  • high bloodpressure
  • high fever
  • heart palpitations
  • severe headache, with no alleviation from painkillers
  • skinrash
  • no appetite
  • upset stomach
  • disorientation
  • severe vomiting
  • crippling pain in legs
  • hives
  • anxiety, severe anxiety
  • insomnia
  • dry mouth
  • tingling and numbness in hands and feet
  • ”taste” of Tamiflu, recurring after many weeks
  • dhiarrhoea

Now not everybody will experience these, only a percentage, estimated at 5% will be the losers, but many of those who did suffer these sideffects were very sorry to have taken the drug at all, and considered the side effects many times worse as the flu they experienced before they took the drug.
I find the recent reports of its use in Japan very disturbing, in Japan Tamiflu prescriptions are ten times higher than in the US, the reports describe bizarre psychiatric problems in children, even leading to death.
I know I’m not going to take the risk, especially as Tamiflu is not a cure anyway.

Read this:

  • interesting article on how the SARS-epidemic was one large media stunt to devert attention from the war in Iraq and the use of weapons of mass destruction, by a fully media-controlled global scare for SARS. After dr Rath publicised his report on the efficacy of vitamin C and other nutrients on combatting the disease, the WHO made an immediate 180” turn around, and proclaimed the disease under control.

After having launched one of the largest media stunts in the history of planet earth, the pharmaceutical cartel and its allies within the WHO had to withdraw it within hours of Dr. Rath calling their bluff.

Dr. Rath comments: “I have been fighting the pharmaceutical cartel for more than a decade now, but this success overshadows everything. The pharmaceutical interest groups – ex-posed as conducting an organized fraud business that risks the life of millions of people and drains the economies of this planet – are apparently extremely nervous. There can be no other reason why they reacted so fast following my exposure that the pharmaceutical cartel is the organizer and benefactor of this man made hysteria. This fact should open the eyes of every intelligent person: How scared must they be if $30,000 in public health advertising is all it takes to stop an epidemic that has been dominating the news around the world.”


Original article from: by Aafke

See also:

Side effects from Tamiflu are worse than the flu

TAMIFLU in the Askapatient database

More evidences for Vitamin C against Virus:


Posted by on August 17, 2009 in Uncategorized



Siddha icthyology
releases a DVD video on siddha icthyology this month in association with siddhadreams. This DVD contains details of more than 100 species of fishes mentioned in Siddha literatures with zoological classification, morphology, images, medical importance and so more.

This is the second product from esiddha exclusively for students and researchers.

For further details:

Contact Us

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Posted by on July 9, 2009 in Uncategorized



Tamil Studies in Germany – Proposed Closure

Tamil Studies in Germany
Proposed Closure –
An entire discipline to be abolished in Germany

Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies University of Cologne Germany
Press Release, Cologne, 17 November 2004

Please assist us in the cause of Tamil and express your solidarity and concern. Letters of protest should be sent directly to the Vice- Chancellor (Rector) of the University of Cologne at the address given below. The Rector, University of Cologne,   Albertus-Magnus-Platz ,  D-50923 Cologne, Germany –  Email:, Fax: 0049-221-470-4893. Please  also send a copy of your letter(s) to our institute. Please forward this email to everyone interested in the future of Tamil.

[See also ‘Bulletin 1992-2004’ – at:
and Dr.Thomas Malten on Tamil Studies in Germany]

The current situation

On Wednesday, 10 November 2004, the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Cologne decided that the Cologne Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies will be closed down when the current director, Prof.Dr. D.B. Kapp, retires in February 2006. The director was informed not earlier than the night before by the dean and vice- dean about the imminent closure. Neither members of the institute nor students had been given the opportunity to present their position prior to the decision. In other words, all people concerned have been totally overrun.

The decision was reached against the background of cuts announced by the Ministry of Science and Research of North Rhine Westphalia, according to which the University of Cologne will have to reduce its number of faculty by 24 until the year 2008. 6 of these positions will have to be taken from the Faculty of Philosophy. By closing down the chair of Indology and  Tamil Studies in Cologne one single position would be reduced. The consequences, however, would be the closure of an entire institution and the demise of the discipline `Tamil Studies’ in Germany. If only from an economic point of view, it seems entirely unjustified to close down a public institution which functions with a minimum of costs, but which has a major impact on contemporary German society:

Why NOT to close down the Cologne Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies (IITS)

– IITS Cologne offers unique opportunities for academic studies in Germany: With its clear focus on South India in both teaching and research, the IITS in Cologne occupies a unique position among the centres of South Asian Studies in Germany. Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on March 7, 2009 in Literary Research



Tamil Studies in Germany

Prof.Thomas Malten
Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies,
Cologne University and Department of Lexicography,
Institute of Asian Studies, Chemmanchery, Chennai

Lecture at Max Mueller Bhavan, Chennai, 17 March 1998
[see also Proposed Closure of Tamil Studies in Germany, 14 November 2004]

In the preceding lectures we have heard about contributions made by German missionaries to Tamil studies particularly in the field of Tamil lexicography and grammar. The study of Tamil language and literature in Germany today – the topic of my lecture — is pursued mainly at two universities, the University of Heidelberg and the University of Cologne. [This is meant in the sense that people are specifically employed for this particular field of teaching and research in Indology – there are of course many more German universities where Tamil has been taught at some time or other in the recent past].

Academic Tamil studies in Germany are based on the efforts of the missionaries, their establishment at universities, however, is of quite recent origin – about 30 to 35 years back, in the 1960s, when the first two World Tamil Conferences were held at Paris and Chennai, which may have helped in creating an awareness and interest in the subject.

The reason for the establishment of Tamil Studies at the university level in Germany can be found in the recognition of the fact that Tamil is the only classical literary language of India besides Sanskrit and that Tamil language and literature have developed tremendously in many branches, particularly during the last 100-150 years.

The works of Arumuga Navalar, the rediscovery and publication of the ancient classics begun by U.V. Swaminatha Aiyar, the appearance of the poet Cupramaniya Parati, the development of a thriving modern narrative prose literature, beginning with the publication of the first Tamil novel, Vªtan¤yakam Pi¥¥ai’s “Pirat¤pa mutaliy¤r carittiram ” in 1879 followed by R¤jamaiyyar’s “Kamal¤mp¤¥ carittiram” a few years later and a host of prose works in this century have all served to make the study of Tamil a very worthwhile and rewarding academic subject in many countries of the world today. Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on March 7, 2009 in Literary Research



The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge from Tamilnadu to Europe (15th to 20th centuries)

The Transmission of Scientific Knowledge from Tamizhagam to Europe

(15th to 20th centuries)

K. V. Ramakrishna Rao

(In this page the author mentioned often the word “bramin” readers pls read that word as “Tamils”. Because the knowledge of Thamizhagam is not only belongs to a purticular caste. I think the author thaught so. This is a good article but having such mistakes. Anyway I thank the author for such a work )


About the transmission of mathematical and astronomical Science from South India, particularly from Kerala, studies have been already conducted and published by C. K. Raju, George Ghevergheese Joseph, Denis F. Almeida, and the Aryabhata Group of University of Exeter1. Though, Prof. D. S. V. Subba Reddy2 has pointed out the European interest and their books on Indian medicine, he stopped short with appreciating interest shown by them. However, about the transmission of scientific knowledge and/or manuscripts from Tamizhagam, it appears no study has been so far. The study of Jesuit writings reveal interesting details that such transmission had taken place during 1600 to 1850 period and even beyond. The study of events at Tranquebar, Pondicherry and Madurai provides wealth of such information.

Many times, the masquerade of the Jesuits has to be removed to find out their scientific pursuits (piercing the corporate veil to understand a company). The author has already presented and published some papers about Saltpetre3, the scientific pursuits of Robert de Nobili4 and Le de Gentil5, the interest of European Scientists in India6, etc. That even the British adopted such methods under the guise of scientific survey is interesting to study their motive7. The cross-reference of Tamil Siddha books correlates corroborate and gives ample evidence for such transmission taking place. The Tamil Siddha works – a compilation popularly known as “Periya Gnanak Kovai” and as well as individual works have been consulted8 for this purpose.

South India up to 18th Century:

From 10th century onwards (with due respect to the Pallavas), South India excelled in scientific and technological activities. Indian shipping, astronomy, chemical, textiles and food processing, architecture and other fields attained status. They in turn encouraged other industries and businesses. The Indian traders and businessmen had been common in many countries. The Cholas were reigning supreme during 10th to 14th centuries. During Vijayanagara period (14th to 16th centuries), everything was at peak followed by the Nayaks. The visiting Europeans (including Jesuits)9 were stunned at multi-storied buildings, gardens, dams and water reservoirs, the shipping activities, metal technology and above all, the time bound activities of the people. They could not understand the time reckoning methods of Indians, as the Europeans were struggling with corresponding activities involving calendar, longitude problem, compass and time reckoning. Here come the Jesuits and missionaries, their colleagues and contemporaries.

Europe during the material period:

During the same period, the European countries were faced with all problems, frequent wars, famines, diseases and above all religious fanaticism interfering with every walk of life. The imports from India and East Indies were as follows:

Year     Percentage

1588        14%

1621        48%

1669        70%

Read the rest of this entry »

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Posted by on March 7, 2009 in Literary Research


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